by Harnaak Singh
Now we will continue from Part 8B.
In part 8B we had discussed the relation of Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s birthday and Vaisakhi with the proposed Sikh Panth Calendar. We were going to make this part a summary part but decided to analyse Baarah Maha in SGGS Ji in relation to the calendar systems.
We will continue with the figure numbers from Part 8B.
Note the drifting occurs in the sidereal method of determining SUN and MOON planetary position.
We use the Jagannatha Hora for sidereal method of determining planetary positions and the Star Fisher for tropical method.
The day used is midnight-midnight unless otherwise stated. The location is Amritsar, Punjab. All dates are Gregorian unless otherwise stated.
The software we will use in the ensuing analysis, are the Star Fisher and the Jagannatha Hora. These programs are available for free download at
STAR FISHER: http://www.starfisher.cz/starfisher/en/download.htm
JAGANNATHA HORA: http://www.vedicastrologer.org/jh/
The importance of a calendar is marking of events so as to represent as accurately as possible the actual timing of the event. We know and have shown that the tropical method is the appropriate method of the marking of events on earth as compared to the sidereal method. The sidereal method is almost exclusively in use in marking of events of most of the calendars in India.
The proposed Sikh calendar uses the tropical method as its basis.
The present Sikh calendar uses the lunisolar calendar to mark Sikh religio-cultural events. The Punjabi months are determined based on the sidereal method. This method is subject to drifting in time/dates.
In Gurbani, Baarah Maha is the Bani that is related to the 12 months of the year. In this article we will address the parts of Baarah Maha which relate the month to weather and season. We will show that the present method (sidereal method) used in the Sikh calendar to fix the Sangrand dates (new month) will in time show that the ‘Baarah Maha is not TRUE (ਬਾਰਾਹ ਮਾਹਾ ਸਚੀ ਬਾਣੀ ਨਹੀ)’. Please read on to find out why!
ANALYSIS OF BAARAH MAHA
There a two Baarah Maha Banees,
- Baarah Maha Tukhari by Guru Nanak Dev Ji AND
- Baarah Maha Manjh by Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
From the analysis of both the Tukhari and the Manjh we can extract the information which relates the months to weather and seasons. This is shown in the table in Figure 66.
Figure 66: Table relating month to seasons according to Baarah Maha
Baarah Maha and Measurable Indicators
The key measurable indicators to be considered are the temperature, rain and snow.
These are identified in the Baarah Maha as shown in the table in Figure 66.
We have obtained graphs of these weather indicators and these are shown in Figures 67 to 70. All indicators temperature/rainfall are for Amritsar except snowfall which is for Srinagar. The bottom axis is the months and vertical axis the value of the indicator. In Figures 69 to 70 the black bars are ignored in this discussion.
Figure 67: Amritsar – Graph of average temperature (red line) and rainfall (blue bars)
Figure 68: Amritsar – Graph of Max, Average, Min temperature 2017
Figure 69: Amritsar – Graph of and rainfall (blue graph) 2017
Note: Black bars are not used in the discussion
Figure 70: Srinagar – Graph of and snowfall (blue graph) 2017
Note: Black bars are not used in the discussion
Guru Ji has identified the Punjabi months and the corresponding measurable weather indicators in the Baarah Maha.
In the following sections, the measurable weather indicators and seasons are reflected on the graphs for different periods of time, to show the relationship of the indicators/seasons with the months (both Western and Punjabi months are shown). Note that the Punjabi months (CHET VAISAKH …) are calculated using the sidereal method which is being used presently in the Sikh Calendar.
Baarah Maha and the Graphs in 1500 AD
From the table in Figure 66 most of the indicators are by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Therefore we will set the reference point for the relationship between Baarah Maha and seasons and the measurable indicators temperature, rain and snow for 1500 AD.
The indicators temperature, rain and snow would be the observation by Guru Ji at that time and hence have the correct relationship between the month and the indicator. This is why we will use this as reference to gauge the impact of the present system using the sidereal method in the Sikh calendar with the passage of time (1500 AD, 2018 AD, 4000 AD, 8000 AD).
Figure 71 shows the temperature, rainfall, snowfall and seasons in relation to what is written in Baarah Maha.
Figure 71: Indicators, average temperature, average rainfall and season relationship with Baarah Maha shown in the Graphs for 1500 AD
Note: the two vertical red lines mark the Punjabi months with the name of the month written in it
Our Gurus say as follows: (please read the below points with reference to Figure 66 and Figure 71)
- Spring comes in Chet (the two vertical red lines mark the Punjabi months with the name of the month written within them). This correctly matches with the western season spring, which begins in March (based on tropical system and as experienced on earth). Tukhari M:1.
- In Jeth/Haard it is very hot (earth burns/burning hot/sun blazes) meaning the temperature is highest. This correctly matches with the temperature (red line) which is highest in June/July. Tukhari M:1 and Manjh M:5.
- The rainy season comes in Sawan. Note that this matches with the very much increased rainfall (blue bars) in July August. Tukhari M:1.
- Finally, the cold sets in during Poh and there is snowfall (see Fig 74 for snowfall). This is correctly reflected in the graph in December/January when the temperature is lowest. This is the peak of winter. Tukhari M:1 and Manjh M:5.
The graphs for the indicators for 2017 are shown in Figure 72 to 74. The comments in the dot points above also prove true in these graphs (72 to 74).
Figure 72: Temperature and season (in 2017) relationship with Baarah Maha shown in the Graphs for 1500 AD
Figure 73: Rainfall and season (in 2017) relationship with Baarah Maha shown in the Graphs for 1500 AD
Figure 74: Snowfall and season (in 2017) relationship with Baarah Maha shown in the Graphs for 1500 AD
It is clearly seen from the graphs, that temperature, rainfall and snowfall and seasons as stated by our Gurus (around 1500 AD) match with the recorded recent measurements. These measurements are the observation on earth where the months (western Jan to Dec) are based on the tropical system.
Baarah Maha and the Graphs in 2018 AD
Now let us see the scenario in 2018 AD. The methodology is the same as used in preparing the graphs in 1500 AD. The Punjabi months (Chet, Hard, Sawan, Poh) for 2018 are shown using tropical method in pink text box and red vertical lines while that using sidereal method is in purple text box and purple vertical lines.
Notice how the Punjabi months have drifted by about 6 days (Chet: 8-Mar in1500 AD to 14-Mar in 2018 AD). The western month would not drift since it is based on the tropical method. If the Punjabi months were based on the tropical method, they would not drift and would be the same in 2018 as in 1500. Therefore, the pink text box with red vertical lines represent the Punjabi months in 2018.
Note the result is the same for the graphs shown in Figures 72 to 74. These, however, are not reproduced here.
Figure 75: Indicators, average temperature, average rainfall and season relationship with Baarah Maha shown in the Graphs for 2018 AD
Baarah Maha and the Graphs in 4000 AD
Now let us see the scenario in 4000 AD. See Figure 77. The methodology is the same as used in preparing the graphs in 2018 AD.
Notice how the Punjabi months have drifted by about 1 month (Chet: 8-Mar in 1500 AD to 11-Apr in 4000 AD). The western months do not drift since they are based on the tropical method. If the Punjabi months were based on the tropical method, they would not drift either and would be the same in 4000 as in 1500. Therefore, the pink text box with red vertical lines represent the Punjabi months in 4000.
This drift now is quite substantial to sort of show that Baarah Maha is not providing the correct information. Chet has moved to Vaisakh and the same for every following Punjabi month.
Some people will question the accuracy Baarah Maha Banee.
Figure 76: Indicators, average temperature, average rainfall and season relationship with Baarah Maha shown in the Graphs for 4000 AD
Baarah Maha and the Graphs in 8000 AD
Now let us see the scenario in 8000 AD. See Figure 77. The methodology is the same as used in preparing the graphs in 2018 AD.
Notice how the Punjabi months have drifted by about 3 months (Chet: 8-Mar in 1500 AD to 5-Jun in 8000 AD) i.e. a drift of one full season. The western months do not drift since they are based on the tropical method. If the Punjabi months were based on the tropical method, they would not drift either and would be the same in 8000 AD as in 1500 AD. Therefore, the pink text box with red vertical lines represent the Punjabi months in 8000 AD.
This drift now is very substantial to sort of show that Baarah Maha is providing FALSE information. Chet has moved to Haard and Poh to Chet. The Punjabi month which was for spring is now occurring in summer and the Punjabi month which was for winter is now occurring in spring.
Some people will question the TRUTH of Baarah Maha Banee.
This is not an acceptable situation.
Figure 77: Indicators, average temperature, average rainfall and season relationship with Baarah Maha shown in the Graphs for 8000 AD
The analysis has shown that Baarah Maha Banee will be proven FALSE in time due to the way the Sikh calendar sets the Punjabi months (the sangrand) which are determined using the sidereal method.
It is a known phenomenon that the sidereal method is subject to precession and there is a drift of the months with time. This is clearly apparent in this analysis and the graphs presented.
It has also been shown that setting the Punjabi months based on the tropical method does not introduce any drift. Thus, the Punjabi months will not drift and will remain as in 1500 AD thus maintaining the TRUTH of Baarah Maha.
There is an URGENT NEED for the AKAAL TAKHAT and the SIKH PANTH to review this matter seriously and ensure that our Guru Ji’s Banee REMAINS TRUE FOR ETERNITY.
The solution is to adopt the tropical method of Punjabi month calculation as proposed in these series of papers BUT with some modifications.
The proposed method is summarized as follows.
The conceptual level Sikh Panth calendar has been proposed (with some modification here) where
- the month CHET starts on 8th March, (changed from the proposed 21st March in view of Baarah Maha)
- each following month VAISAKH, JETH, … PHAGAN start on the 8th of each of the Gregorian months APRIL, MAY, … FEBRUARY respectively (as at 1500 during Guru Nanak Ji’s time).
- the number of days in the month have the same number of days in the Gregorian month e.g CHET follows MARCH, VAISAKH follows APRIIL ….. PHAGAN follows FEBRUARY.
This will maintain the TRUTH of the Baarah Maha Banee for eternity.